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New York, New York American dancer, choreographer, and teacher Martha Graham, American dancer, choreographer one who creates and arranges dance performancesand teacher, is considered one of the major figures of modern dance. Her father was a doctor who treated people with nervous disorders.
When she was ten years old, and after one of her sisters developed asthma a breathing problemthe family moved to California because the weather was better. Graham became interested in studying dance after she saw Ruth St. Her parents did not approve of her becoming a dancer, so she enrolled in the Cumnock School, a junior college.
Graham's father died inafter which she felt free to pursue her dream. After graduating from Cumnock, she enrolled in the Denishawn Studio, a dancing school operated by Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn — Graham had never had a dance lesson up to that point, but the small, quiet, shy, but hardworking girl impressed Shawn and toured with his troupe in a production of Xochitl, based on an Indian legend.
In Graham left this company to do two years of solo dancing for the Greenwich Village Follies. She began experimenting with modern dance forms. She experimented with what the body could do based on its own structure, developing what was known as "percussive movements.
The dancers' faces were tight, their hands stiff, and their costumes short. Later she added more scenery and different costumes for effect.
The music was modern and usually composed just for the dance. Isadora Duncan —the first modern dancer, had used music to inspire her works, but Graham used music to make her works more dramatic.
Graham's process of creation usually began with what she called a "certain stirring. She would then develop a dramatic situation or character to express the feeling or idea. She then found music, or asked for new music from her longtime collaborator cocreatorLouis Horst, to maintain the inspiration while she created movements to express it.
The purpose of Graham's dance was to bring about an increased awareness of life and a greater understanding of the nature of man.
Dance was to her an "inner emotional experience. She established the use of moving scenery, used props as symbols, and combined speech with dancing. She was also the first to integrate her group, using African Americans and Asians in her regular company. She replaced the traditional ballet folk dress with either a straight, dark, long shirt or the common leotard a tight, one-piece garment worn by dancers.
Using the stage, the floor, and the props as part of the dance itself, she produced a whole new language of dance. In Graham introduced this new language in her first solo recital in New York City.
Her first large group piece, Vision of the Apocalypse, was performed in Her most important early work was a piece called Heretic. Popular success After Graham's performance as the lead role in composer Igor Stravinsky's — American premiere of Rite of SpringGraham toured the United States for four years —35 in the production Electra.
During this trip she became interested in the American Indians of the Southwest. One of the first products of this interest was Primitive Mysteries. Her increasing interest in the American past was seen in her dance based on the lives of American pioneer women, Frontierand in her famous Appalachian Spring In she became the first dancer to receive a Guggenheim fellowship an award to promote artistic research and creationand she danced for President Franklin Roosevelt — at the White House in She also helped establish the Bennington School of Arts at Bennington College in Vermont, where her teaching made Bennington the center of experimental dance in America.
With the later establishment of the Martha Graham School of Contemporary Dance in New York City, she taught a large number of modern dancers who went on to spread her ideas and style to the rest of the world.
Later years Graham danced her last role inbut she continued to choreograph. In she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom. A year before her death, inshe choreographed Maple Leaf Rag, a show that featured music by Scott Joplin — and costumes by Calvin Klein —.
Her name is still linked with modern dance in many people's minds. Martha Graham died on April 1,known as one of the twentieth century's revolutionary artists. The Life and Work of Martha Graham.One other great resource to get research articles besides pubmed is yunusemremert.com They have particularly articles in the natural sciences, all open free of charge (the author uploads their own generated copy even for articles which eventually appear in embargoed journals).
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