Everything important that has happened to humans since the Paleolithic is due to environmental influences. History as a whole reflects these environmental differences and forces. Culture is largely irrelevant: Diamond proceeds systematically through the main phases of history in all parts of the world and tries to show, with detailed arguments, how each phase, in each major region, is explainable largely by environmental forces.
September Remember the essays you had to write in high school? Topic sentence, introductory paragraph, supporting paragraphs, conclusion. The conclusion being, say, that Ahab in Moby Dick was a Christ-like figure. Or at least, how I write one. Mods The most obvious difference between real essays and the things one has to write in school is that real essays are not exclusively about English literature.
Certainly schools should teach students how to write. But due to a series of historical accidents the teaching of writing has gotten mixed together with the study of literature. And so all over the country students are writing not about how a baseball team with a small budget might compete with the Yankees, or the role of color in fashion, or what constitutes a good dessert, but about symbolism in Dickens.
With the result that writing is made to seem boring and pointless. Who cares about symbolism in Dickens? Dickens himself would be more interested in an essay about color or baseball. How did things get this way? To answer that we have to go back almost a thousand years. AroundEurope at last began to catch its breath after centuries of chaos, and once they had the luxury of curiosity they rediscovered what we call "the classics.
These earlier civilizations were so much more sophisticated that for the next several centuries the main work of European scholars, in almost every field, was to assimilate what they knew.
During this period the study of ancient texts acquired great prestige. It seemed the essence of what scholars did. As European scholarship gained momentum it became less and less important; by someone who wanted to learn about science could find better teachers than Aristotle in his own era.
In the 19th century the study of ancient texts was still the backbone of the curriculum. The time was then ripe for the question: But for obvious reasons no one wanted to give that answer.
The archaeological work being mostly done, it implied that those studying the classics were, if not wasting their time, at least working on problems of minor importance.
And so began the study of modern literature. There was a good deal of resistance at first. The first courses in English literature seem to have been offered by the newer colleges, particularly American ones.
Oxford had a chair of Chinese before it had one of English. This idea along with the PhD, the department, and indeed the whole concept of the modern university was imported from Germany in the late 19th century. Beginning at Johns Hopkins inthe new model spread rapidly.
Writing was one of the casualties. Colleges had long taught English composition. But how do you do research on composition? The professors who taught math could be required to do original math, the professors who taught history could be required to write scholarly articles about history, but what about the professors who taught rhetoric or composition?
What should they do research on?
The closest thing seemed to be English literature. This had two drawbacks: High schools imitate universities. The seeds of our miserable high school experiences were sown inwhen the National Education Association "formally recommended that literature and composition be unified in the high school course.
That principle, like the idea that we ought to be writing about literature, turns out to be another intellectual hangover of long forgotten origins.
In fact they were more law schools. And at least in our tradition lawyers are advocates, trained to take either side of an argument and make as good a case for it as they can.
Whether cause or effect, this spirit pervaded early universities. The study of rhetoric, the art of arguing persuasively, was a third of the undergraduate curriculum. This is at least nominally preserved in our present-day thesis defense:The "cultural spheres of influence" of India, China, Europe, and Islâm are founded on the World Civilizations of their central or foundational regions, which may be defined by religion or culture but most precisely by the possession of an ancient Classical language attended by a large literature in that language.
In India this language is Sanskrit,, which is first of all the sacred language. The festivities of the Roman state religion were steeped in tradition and ritual symbolism. Sacred offerings to the gods, consultations with priests and diviners, ritual formulae, communal feasting—were all practices aimed at fostering and maintaining social cohesion and communicating authority.
Essay on The Three Main Modern Civilizations - The Big Three While all past cultures contributed to the forward march of progress, there are three highly developed historical cultures which did even more - . The three main civilizations each had phenomenally developed cultures which evolved through their system of writing, their architecture, their philosophy, their government, and their religion.
These three cultures eventually set the standards for western civilizations. Essay Early River Valley Civilizations.
Some of the earliest civilizations on Earth were the Early River Valley Civilizations. All of these civilizations existed between and BCE. Three of these civilizations, China, Sumer, and Egypt shared many characteristics. Among these common characteristics were the development of agriculture through irrigation, the importance of religion in society, and the .
Many students find essay writing to be an especially daunting task. Depending on the essay topic, research can take anywhere from a few hours to several days and .